The curriculum has had different meanings and interpretations throughout history. In simple terms, a curriculum is a set of all the information, data, instructions, and activities to impart knowledge. Modern world countries have a different set of ideologies and methodologies for curriculum development. The process of curriculum development decides what to include or exclude from studies and it involves various steps. Curriculum development is not an event but is an evolutionary process.
In creating a curriculum, shifted choices are made to work out reasonable educational modules by consolidating all the standards of a great curriculum. The technique to arrange either a unit or add up to a curriculum is to break down the precise steps to guarantee efficient considering, to form conceivable, orderly thinking of the components that compare such a plan, and to supply for an exact and precise thought about and application of the important standards and realities. The curriculum development process should have the following steps.
The primary step in curriculum development is to diagnose the need and collecting all the necessary information about it. The first question is to know about the learner for whom the curriculum is being designed. This includes questions like who is going to take the course, what he could have learned previously etc. For example, to develop a class 8 science curriculum, one must have to know about the curriculum being taught to classes 6 and 7. Only after that, up to date and gap-filling curriculum can be developed. To get a clear idea about the audience, the experts and instructional designers can be contacted for their expertise in the subject matter.
Formulation of comprehensive objectives about a particular curriculum is very crucial. It should mainly focus on important concepts in a specific subject, reactions, and feelings of the audience in response, and habits and skills to be mastered.
Based on the determination of needs and provisional projection of targets, it is much simple to go for the substance choice. The destinations and needs give an essential thought and direction to choose the pertinent content.
The primary errand is to choose the significant themes through which the goals defined can be accomplished unit by the unit; the topics ought to be finalized. What are distinctive topics which can be secured under each subject, lesson, and level? At that point, the thought has to pay consideration to consolidate into the wide substance. To suit the thought and points, the particular substance is arranged to finalize the wide ranges under the curriculum.
For example, in classes 6 and 7, students have mastered the cell, tissues, and organs. So in class 8, they must learn about different organ systems. Here the selection of organ systems to be included is crucial so that it could relate to learners’ prior knowledge.
With the substance in hand, it is simple to arrange for learning encounters or activities. The criteria with which the substance is drawn ought to provide/plan/visualize what understudies got to encounter in order to procure certain behavioral competencies and grouping of the experiences. Care must be taken to incorporate an assortment of learning –reading, composing, watching and doing, inquiring about, dissecting, examining, organizing, portraying, and absorbing.
The ultimate step is assessment or evaluation. In spite of the fact that the material has gone through numerous cycles, it is evaluated once more. Each group part from the starting is always assessing the material and guaranteeing that it serves the learner well. The learning destinations are coordinated against the material to guarantee that the fabric will lead to quantifiable outcomes. It takes a group to plan great educational modules. Each step includes collaboration and consistent emphasis on the content. As a result of this cooperation and devotion to the learner, it is conceivable to construct educational programs that lead to wanted learning results.
The major need for curriculum development is to look for effective solutions for a country’s needs. The first national commission for education was established after almost 12 years of independence. The main aim of the commission was to restructure and reframe the whole education system in Pakistan. The emphasis was on providing the individual the education which will make them constructive members of society. The new education policy was marked in upcoming years, but its implementation throughout the country was quite challenging. Each government tried to adopt new policies about education but all of them had a common basis which was “Muslim ideology”.
Until 1972, no educational policy had emphasized the importance of curriculum in the education system, so there was no structure for curriculum development. Now in Pakistan, the center-periphery approach is adopted for curriculum development. The bureaucrats establish goals and aim to achieve the desired objectives. The provincial curriculum committee develops the curriculum and the federal government gives final approval. The teachers, headmasters, subject experts, educators, and curriculum experts join and make the provincial curriculum committee. All the stakeholders plan and make proposals. After the long hard work, the draft is made and teachers are trained. If there are some flaws, the committee addresses the issue and finalizes the draft. After that, it is handed over to the central or national curriculum committee for implementation. If the central committee rejects it, the provincial committee has to redesign it. The approval of the central committee is required for its publication.
National Curriculum Council (NCC) consists of three members from each province or area. From each province or area, three members are from the Text Book Board, Education Department, and Curriculum Bureau (one member from each department). In the Curriculum wing, Secretariat has been established and its head is “Joint Educational Advisor”. “Deputy Educational Advisers”, “Education Officers” and “Assistant Educational Advisers” are there for the head’s assistance. Lastly, the secretariat has three sections and each section is headed by “Deputy Educational Adviser”.